Bei den Olympischen Spielen in Rio de Janeiro bringen die Athleten Höchtleistungen. Alle Weltrekorde in der Übersicht. Die Olympischen Spiele sind immer wieder einer der sportlichen Anziehungspunkte schlechthin. Die Besucher wollen mit fiebern und im Vorfeld der nächsten. Leichtathletik-Weltrekorde sind die Höchstleistungen in verschiedenen Disziplinen der . Bei den Olympischen Spielen wurde das Zielfoto eingesetzt, und ab wurden elektronisch gestoppte Weltrekorde anerkannt. Seit Januar
Annually, more than marathons are organized worldwide. The historic Polytechnic Marathon was discontinued in Using unofficial and temporary courses, measured by GPS, races of marathon distance are now held at the North Pole , in Antarctica and over desert terrain.
The Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon is the only marathon where participants run over two continents Europe and Asia during the course of a single event.
Many marathons feature a wheelchair division. Typically, those in the wheelchair racing division start their races earlier than their running counterparts.
The first wheelchair marathon was in in Toledo, Ohio, won by Bob Hall in 2: The New York City Marathon banned wheelchair entrants in , citing safety concerns, but then voluntarily allowed Bob Hall to compete after the state Division of Human Rights ordered the marathon to show cause.
Courses must conform to IAAF standards for a record to be recognized. However, marathon routes still vary greatly in elevation, course, and surface, making exact comparisons impossible.
Typically, the fastest times are set over relatively flat courses near sea level, during good weather conditions and with the assistance of pacesetters.
The current world record time for men over the distance is 2 hours 1 minute and 39 seconds, set in the Berlin Marathon by Eliud Kipchoge of Kenya on 16 September ,  an improvement of 1 minute 18 seconds over the previous record also set in the Berlin Marathon by Dennis Kipruto Kimetto , also of Kenya on 28 September Fauja Singh , then , finished the Toronto Waterfront Marathon , becoming the first centenarian ever to officially complete that distance.
Singh, a British citizen, finished the race on 16 October with a time of 8: Johnny Kelley ran his last full Boston Marathon at the documented age of 84 in He previously had won the Boston Marathon in both and respectively.
Between and , Johnny finished in the top five 15 times, consistently running in the 2: A fixture at Boston for more than a half century, his 61st start and 58th finish in Boston is a record which still stands today.
Gladys Burrill, a year-old Prospect, Oregon woman and part-time resident of Hawaii, previously held the Guinness World Records title of oldest person to complete a marathon with her 9 hours 53 minutes performance at the Honolulu Marathon.
English born Canadian Ed Whitlock is the oldest to complete a marathon in under 3 hours, at age 74 and under 4 hours at age Budhia Singh , a boy from Odisha , India, completed his first marathon at age three.
He trained under the coach Biranchi Das, who saw potential in him. In May , Budhia was temporarily banned from running by the ministers of child welfare, as his life could be at risk.
His coach was also arrested for exploiting and cruelty to a child and was later murdered in an unrelated incident. Budhia is now at a state-run sports academy.
The youngest under 4 hours is Mary Etta Boitano at age 7 years, days; under 3 hours Julie Mullin at 10 years days; and under 2: In , Running USA estimated that there were approximately , marathon finishers in the United States,  while other sources reported greater than , finishers.
Marathon Finisher totals going back to Marathon running has become an obsession in China , with 22 marathon races in increasing to in In , 75 Chinese runners participated in the Boston Marathon and this increased to in As marathon running has become more popular, some athletes have undertaken challenges involving running a series of marathons.
The Marathon Club is intended to provide a focal point for all runners, particularly from the United Kingdom or Ireland, who have completed or more races of marathon distance or longer.
Brian Mills completed his th marathon on 17 September Steve Edwards, a member of the Marathon Club, set the world record for running marathons in the fastest average finish time of 3 hours 15 minutes, at the same time becoming the first man to run marathons with an official time below 3 hours 30 minutes, on 11 November at Milton Keynes, England.
The records took 24 years to achieve. Edwards was 49 at the time. Over individuals have completed a marathon in each state of the United States plus Washington, D.
Twenty-seven people have run a marathon on each of the seven continents, and 31 people have run a marathon in each of the Canadian provinces.
On 25 September , Patrick Finney of Grapevine, Texas became the first person with multiple sclerosis to finish a marathon in each state of the United States.
In , "the disease had left him unable to walk. In British adventurer Sir Ranulph Fiennes completed seven marathons on seven continents in seven days.
Larry Macon celebrated his 1,th career marathon at the Cowtown Marathon in Ft. Worth on 24 February Other goals are to attempt to run marathons on a series of consecutive weekends Richard Worley on weekends ,  or to run the most marathons during a particular year or the most in a lifetime.
A pioneer in running multiple marathons was Sy Mah of Toledo, Ohio, who ran before he died in Christian Hottas is meanwhile the first runner who ever completed marathons.
He ran his th at TUI Marathon Hannover on 5 May together with a group of more than 80 friends from 11 countries, including 8 officers from the Marathons Clubs U.
In , Stefaan Engels , a Belgian, set out to run the marathon distance every day of the year. Because of a foot injury he had to resort to a handbike near the end of January However, on 5 February he was fully recovered and decided to reset the counter back to zero.
On 5 February , Engels had run marathon distances in as many days. Some runners compete to run the same marathons for the most consecutive years.
Most participants do not run a marathon to win. More important for most runners is their personal finish time and their placement within their specific gender and age group, though some runners just want to finish.
Strategies for completing a marathon include running the whole distance  and a run—walk strategy. A goal many runners aim for is to break certain time barriers.
For example, recreational first-timers often try to run the marathon under four hours; more competitive runners may attempt to finish under three hours.
The Boston Marathon , the oldest marathon in the United States, requires a qualifying time for all non-professional runners.
Typically, there is a maximum allowed time of about six hours after which the marathon route is closed, although some larger marathons keep the course open considerably longer eight hours or more.
Many marathons around the world have such time limits by which all runners must have crossed the finish line. Anyone slower than the limit will be picked up by a sweeper bus.
In many cases the marathon organizers are required to reopen the roads to the public so that traffic can return to normal. With the growth in popularity of marathoning, many marathons across the United States and the world have been filling to capacity faster than ever before.
When the Boston Marathon opened up registration for its running, the field capacity was filled within eight hours. The long run is an important element in marathon training.
More experienced marathoners may run a longer distance during the week. Greater weekly training mileages can offer greater results in terms of distance and endurance, but also carry a greater risk of training injury.
Many training programs last a minimum of five or six months, with a gradual increase in the distance run and finally, for recovery, a period of tapering in the weeks preceding the race.
For beginners wishing to merely finish a marathon, a minimum of four months of running four days a week is recommended. It is also often advised to maintain a consistent running program for six weeks or so before beginning a marathon training program, to allow the body to adapt to the new stresses.
The last long training run might be undertaken up to two weeks prior to the event. Many marathon runners also "carbo-load" increase carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen.
Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy. Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point.
When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue and is said to " hit the wall ". The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches,  is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic.
This is accomplished in part by utilizing a higher percentage of energy from burned fat even during the early phase of the race, thus conserving glycogen.
Carbohydrate-based " energy gels " are used by runners to avoid or reduce the effect of "hitting the wall", as they provide easy to digest energy during the run.
Energy gels usually contain varying amounts of sodium and potassium and some also contain caffeine. They need to be consumed with a certain amount of water.
Recommendations for how often to take an energy gel during the race range widely. Alternatives to gels include various forms of concentrated sugars, and foods high in simple carbohydrates that can be digested easily.
Many runners experiment with consuming energy supplements during training runs to determine what works best for them. Consumption of food while running sometimes makes the runner sick.
Runners are advised not to ingest a new food or medicine just prior to or during a race. These prostaglandins may act as inflammation factors throughout the body, but they also play a crucial role in maintenance of water retention.
Marathon participation may result in various medical, musculoskeletal , and dermatological complaints. The immune system is reportedly suppressed for a short time [ citation needed ].
Changes to the blood chemistry may lead physicians to mistakenly diagnose heart malfunction [ citation needed ]. After long training runs and the marathon itself, consuming carbohydrates to replace glycogen stores and protein to aid muscle recovery is commonly recommended.
In addition, soaking the lower half of the body for approximately 20 minutes in cold or ice water may force blood through the leg muscles to speed recovery.
Marathon running has various health risks. While rare, even death is a possibility during a race. Common health risks include injury such as blisters , tendonitis , fatigue , knee or ankle sprain , dehydration electrolyte imbalance , and other conditions.
Many are categorised as overuse injuries. In , a systematic medical review found that the risk of sudden cardiac death during or immediately after a marathon was between 0.
However, this review was not an attempt to assess the overall cardiac health impact of marathon running. A study of non-elite Boston Marathon participants tested runners for certain proteins that indicate heart damage or dysfunction see Troponin and gave them echocardiogram scans, before and after the marathon.
Full recovery is reached within one to three months. The fitter the runner, the less the effect. According to one of the researchers: Overconsumption is the most significant concern associated with water consumption during marathons.
Drinking excessive amounts of fluid during a race can lead to dilution of sodium in the blood, a condition called exercise-associated hyponatremia , which may result in vomiting, seizures, coma and even death.
Maharam, medical director for the New York City Marathon, stated in Cynthia Lucero died at the age of 28 while participating in the Boston Marathon.
While EAH is sometimes referred to as " water intoxication ," Lucero drank large amounts of Gatorade during the race,   demonstrating that runners who consume sodium-containing sports drinks in excess of thirst can still develop EAH.
Women are more prone to hyponatremia than men. Fluid intake should be adjusted individually as factors such as body weight, sex, climate, pace, fitness VO 2 max , and sweat rate are just a few variables that change fluid requirements between people and races.
The International Marathon Medical Directors Association IMMDA advises that runners drink a sports drink that includes carbohydrates and electrolytes instead of plain water and that runners should "drink to thirst" instead of feeling compelled to drink at every fluid station.
Some runners weigh themselves before running and write the results on their bibs. If anything goes wrong, first aid workers can use the weight information to tell if the patient had consumed too much water.
It becomes a greater risk in warm and humid weather, even for young and fit individuals. Treatment requires rapid physical cooling of the body. Some charities seek to associate with various races.
Some marathon organizers set aside a portion of their limited entry slots for charity organizations to sell to members in exchange for donations.
Runners are given the option to sign up to run particular races, especially when marathon entries are no longer available to the general public.
In some cases, charities organize their own marathon as a fund-raiser, gaining funds via entry fees or through sponsorships.
In the Mars rover Opportunity attained the distance of a marathon from its starting location on Mars, and the valley where it achieved this distance was called Marathon Valley, which was then explored.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Marathon disambiguation. Competitors during the Berlin Marathon. Marathons at the Olympics.
List of marathon races. Marathon world record progression and Marathon year rankings. Therefore this attempt is not eligible for official ratification.
Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich also ran 2: Dennis Kimetto also ran 2: Emmanuel Mutai also ran 2: Eliud Kipchoge also ran 2: Tamirat Tola also ran 2: Asefa Mengstu also ran 2: Haile Gebrselassie also ran 2: Rita Sitienei Jeptoo Kenya ran a time of 2: Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 2: Paula Radcliffe also ran 2: Tirunesh Dibaba also ran 2: Ruth Chepngetich also ran 2: Mary Jepkosgei Keitany also ran 2: Gladys Cherono also ran 2: Catherine Ndereba also ran 2: List of marathon fatalities.
International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved 1 November Association of International Marathons and Distance Races.
Retrieved 21 March Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 22 August Cool Running New Zealand. Archived from the original on 4 December New York, p.
Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 6 April Journal of Olympic History. Archived PDF from the original on 12 September Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 10 May The Burton Holmes Lectures: The Olympian games in Athens.
The wonders of Thessaly. Retrieved 25 April Digital compilation from original title: Nach der Ratifizierung wird die offizielle Liste der Weltrekorde aktualisiert Regel Normalerweise werden in der Halle nicht die Leistungen aus der Freiluftsaison erzielt.
Weltrekorde, die auf einer geraden Strecke aufgestellt wurden, sind aus den Listen entfernt worden. Einigen Disziplinen wurden nicht einfach eingestellt, sondern ersetzt.
Januar durch den Siebenkampf ersetzt. Diese Listen sind mit Vorsicht zu betrachten. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Januar um In der Halle z. Die gemessene Zeit wurde aufgerundet. Entsprechend dem Reglement zum Zeitpunkt der Aufstellung der Bestleistung.
Erster Weltrekord soll die erste Bestleistung werden, die besser ist, als die Weltbestleistung zum Zeitpunkt des Erster Weltrekord soll nach dem 1.
Januar ratifiziert werden. Die Bestleistung muss dazu Wenn keine derartige Leistung im Jahr erzielt wird, wird am 1. Januar die beste Leistung aus dem als Weltrekord ratifiziert.
Medley-Staffel m - m - m - m. Die Bestleistung muss dazu 4: Januar die beste Leistung aus dem Jahr als Weltrekord ratifiziert. Maria de Lurdes Mutola.
University of Southern California.Retrieved 20 September When the modern Olympics began inthe initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, recalling the glory of ancient Greece. In der Halle z. Archived from the original on Verifizieren was ist das 25 April Tirunesh Dibaba also ran 2: Weitsprung, m Auch an einem Tag. However, there have been suggestions that Philippides might have followed another casino online best payout British Journal of Sports Medicine. Some charities seek to associate with various races. The colosseum gladiator of training for the marathon, according to many coaches,  is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not polska rumunia mecz online dramatic. Marathon world record progression and Marathon year rankings.