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More recently birds of prey have suffered at the hands of farmers protecting their stock and their game birds. The bird life is unusually varied, mainly because England lies along the route of bird migrations.
Some birds have found town gardens, where they are often fed, to be a favourable environment , and in London about different species are recorded annually.
London also is a habitat conducive to foxes, which in small numbers have colonized woods and heaths within a short distance of the city centre.
There are few kinds of reptiles and amphibians—about half a dozen species of each—but they are nearly all plentiful where conditions suit them.
Freshwater fish are numerous; the char and allied species of the lakes of Cumbria probably represent an ancient group, related to the trout, that migrated to the sea before the tectonic changes that formed these lakes cut off their outlet.
The marine fishes are abundant in species and in absolute numbers. The great diversity of shorelines produces habitats for numerous types of invertebrate animals.
The English language is polyglot, drawn from a variety of sources, and its vocabulary has been augmented by importations from throughout the world.
The English language does not identify the English, for it is the main language of Wales, Scotland, Ireland, many Commonwealth countries, and the United States.
The primary source of the language, however, is the main ethnic stem of the English: Their language provides the most commonly used words in the modern English vocabulary.
In the millennia following the last glacial period, the British Isles were peopled by migrant tribes from the continent of Europe and, later, by traders from the Mediterranean area.
During the Roman occupation England was inhabited by Celtic-speaking Brythons or Britons , but the Brythons yielded to the invading Teutonic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes from present northwestern Germany except in the mountainous areas of western and northern Great Britain.
The Anglo-Saxons preserved and absorbed little of the Roman-British culture they found in the 5th century. The history of England before the Norman Conquest is poorly documented, but what stands out is the tenacity of the Anglo-Saxons in surviving a succession of invasions.
They united most of what is now England from the 9th to the midth century, only to be overthrown by the Normans in For two centuries Norman French became the language of the court and the ruling nobility; yet English prevailed and by had reestablished itself as an official language.
Church Latin, as well as a residue of Norman French, was incorporated into the language during this period. It was subsequently enriched by the Latin and Greek of the educated scholars of the Renaissance.
The seafarers, explorers, and empire builders of modern history have imported foreign words, most copiously from Europe but also from Asia. These words have been so completely absorbed into the language that they pass unselfconsciously as English.
The English, it might be said, are great Anglicizers. The English have also absorbed and Anglicized non-English peoples, from Scandinavian pillagers and Norman conquerors to Latin church leaders.
Among royalty, a Welsh dynasty of monarchs, the Tudors , was succeeded by the Scottish Stuarts , to be followed by the Dutch William of Orange and the German Hanoverians.
English became the main language for the Scots, Welsh, and Irish. England provided a haven for refugees from the time of the Huguenots in the 17th century to the totalitarian persecutions of the 20th century.
Many Jews have settled in England. Since World War II there has been large-scale immigration from Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, posing seemingly more difficult problems of assimilation, and restrictive immigration regulations have been imposed that are out of step with the open-door policy that had been an English tradition for many generations.
Although the Church of England is formally established as the official church, with the monarch at its head, England is a highly secularized country.
The Church of England has some 13, parishes and a similar number of clergy, but it solemnizes fewer than one-third of marriages and baptizes only one in four babies.
The Nonconformist non-Anglican Protestant churches have nominally fewer members, but there is probably greater dedication among them, as with the Roman Catholic church.
There is virtually complete religious tolerance in England and no longer any overt prejudice against Catholics. The decline in churchgoing has been thought to be an indicator of decline in religious belief, but opinion polls substantiate the view that belief in God and the central tenets of Christianity survives the flagging fortunes of the churches.
Some churches—most notably those associated with the Evangelical movement—have small but growing memberships. There are also large communities of Muslims, Jews, Sikhs, and Hindus.
The modern landscape of England has been so significantly changed by humans that there is virtually no genuine wilderness left.
Only the remotest moorland and mountaintops have been untouched. Even the bleak Pennine moors of the north are crisscrossed by dry stone walls, and their vegetation is modified by the cropping of mountain sheep.
The marks of centuries of exploitation and use dominate the contemporary landscape. The oldest traces are the antiquarian survivals, such as the Bronze Age forts studding the chalk downs of the southwest, and the corrugations left by the strip farming of medieval open fields.
More significant is the structure of towns and villages, which was established in Roman-British and Anglo-Saxon times and has persisted as the basic pattern.
The English live in scattered high-density groupings, whether in villages or towns or, in modern times, cities. Although the latter sprawled into conurbations during the 19th and early 20th centuries without careful planning, the government has since limited the encroachment of urban development, and England retains extensive tracts of farming countryside between its towns, its smaller villages often engulfed in the vegetation of trees, copses, hedgerows, and fields: The visual impact of a mostly green and pleasant land can be seriously misleading.
England is primarily an industrial country, built up during the Industrial Revolution by exploitation of the coalfields and cheap labour, especially in the cotton-textile areas of Lancashire, the woolen-textile areas of Yorkshire, and the coal-mining, metalworking, and engineering centres of the Midlands and the North East.
England has large tracts of derelict areas, scarred by the spoil heaps of the coal mines, quarries and clay pits, abandoned industrial plants, and rundown slums.
One of the earliest initiatives to maintain the heritage of the past was the establishment in of the National Trust , a private organization dedicated to the preservation of historic places and natural beauty in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
There is a separate National Trust for Scotland. In the Civic Trust was established to promote interest in and action on issues of the urban environment.
Hundreds of local societies dedicated to the protection of the urban environment have been set up, and many other voluntary organizations as well as government agencies are working to protect and improve the English landscape.
Greenbelts have been mapped out for London and other conurbations. Fish have returned to rivers—such as the Thames, Tyne, and Tees—from which they had been driven by industrial pollution.
It was natural for different groups of the population to establish themselves in recognizable physical areas. In the north, for example, the east and west are separated by the Pennines, and the estuaries of the Humber, Thames, and Severn rivers form natural barriers.
The eight traditional geographic regions—the South West, the South East Greater London often was separated out as its own region , the West Midlands, the East Midlands, East Anglia, the North West, Yorkshire, and the North East—often were referred to as the standard regions of England, though they never served administrative functions.
In the s the government redrew and renamed some regions and established government development agencies for each.
The South West contains the last Celtic stronghold in England, Cornwall , where a Celtic language was spoken until the 18th century.
There is even a small nationalist movement, Mebyon Kernow Sons of Cornwall , seeking to revive the old language. Although it has no political significance, the movement reflects the disenchantment of a declining area, with the exhaustion of mineral deposits toward the end of the 19th century.
Cornwall and the neighbouring county of Devon share a splendid coastline, and Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks are in this part of the region.
Farther east are the city of Bristol and the counties of Dorset , Gloucestershire , Somerset , and Wiltshire. The South East, centred on London, has a population and wealth to match many nation-states.
This is the dominant area of England and the most rapidly growing one, although planning controls such as greenbelts have restricted the urban sprawl of London since the midth century.
While fully one-third of the South East is still devoted to farming or horticulture, the region as a whole also has an extensive range of manufacturing industry.
With improvements in the transportation systems, however, nuclear and space research facilities, retailing, advertising, high-technology industries, and some services have moved to areas outside London, including Surrey , Buckinghamshire , and Hertfordshire.
With its theatres, concert halls, museums, and art galleries, London is the cultural capital of the country. At Tilbury , 26 miles 42 km downstream from London proper, the Port of London Authority oversees the largest and commercially most important port facilities in Britain.
Whether the people of the South East feel a regional identity is questionable. Sussex and Bedfordshire or Oxfordshire , Hampshire , and Kent have nothing much in common apart from being within the magnetic pull of London.
Loyalties are more specifically to towns, such as St. Albans or Brighton , and within London there is a sense of belonging more to localities—such as Chelsea or Hampstead, which acquire something of the character of urban villages—than to the metropolis as a whole.
Regional characteristics are stronger outside the South East. The West Midlands region, comprising the historic counties of Herefordshire , Worcestershire , Shropshire , Staffordshire , and Warwickshire , has given its name to the metropolitan county of West Midlands , which includes the cities of Birmingham and Coventry and the Black Country an urban area whose name reflects the coating of grime and soot afflicting the buildings of the region.
With a history dating to the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution , the West Midland towns gained a reputation for being ugly but prosperous.
However, the decline of heavy industry during the late 20th century took its toll on employment and prosperity in the region.
Not exclusively an industrial area, the West Midlands includes Shakespeare country around Stratford-upon-Avon , the fruit orchards of the Vale of Evesham , and the hill country on the Welsh border.
The East Midlands are less coherent as a region, taking in the manufacturing centres of Northampton , Leicester , Nottingham , and Derby. Several canals in the region, including the Grand Junction and the Trent and Mersey, were used for commerce primarily from the late 18th to the early 20th century.
They are now being revived, mainly for recreational use. East Anglia retains an air of remoteness that belongs to its history.
With the North Sea on its northern and eastern flanks, it was at one time almost cut off by fenland to the west now drained and forests cleared long ago to the south.
In medieval times it was one of the richest wool regions and, in some parts, was depopulated to make way for sheep.
It is now the centre of some of the most mechanized farming in England. Compared with other regions, East Anglia has a low population density; with rapid industrialization in cities such as Norwich and Bacton, however, this pattern is changing.
Regions become more distinctive the farther they are from London. The North West, chronically wet and murky, comprises the geographic counties of Cumbria , Lancashire , and Cheshire and the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester and Merseyside including Liverpool.
The North West expresses itself in an accent of its own, with a tradition of variety-hall humour from the classic work of George Formby and Gracie Fields to the more recent efforts of Alexie Sayle ; it has also earned global renown for giving birth to British rock music , with the Beatles and other groups in Liverpool, and for football soccer , notably with the Liverpool FC and Manchester United football clubs.
Overall, the North West is still breaking into the new territories of modern industry, its old cotton towns symbolically overshadowed by the grim gritrock Pennine escarpments that have been stripped of their trees by two centuries of industrial smoke.
Nonetheless, Manchester remains an important financial and commercial centre. On the east side of the Pennines watershed, the metropolitan county of West Yorkshire , including the cities of Leeds and Bradford , has a character similar to that of the industrial North West.
Its prosperity formerly was based on coal and textile manufacture, and, though manufacturing remains important, West Yorkshire has diversified its economy.
This region also shows a rugged independence of character expressed in a tough style of humour. Farther south, steel is concentrated at Sheffield , world-famous for its cutlery and silver plate known as Sheffield plate.
Sheffield is the cultural and service centre of the industrial metropolitan county of South Yorkshire. The region also has extensive areas of farming in North Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire , a deep-sea fishing industry operating from Hull , and tourist country along a fine coast in the east North York Moors National Park and in the beautiful valleys of the west Yorkshire Dales National Park.
The North East extends to the Scottish border, taking in the geographic counties of Northumberland and Durham. It also includes the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear and the Teesside metropolitan area centred on Middlesbrough and is therefore unusually diverse.
Teesside was heavily industrialized iron and steel and shipbuilding during the 19th century, but it has more recently become an important tourist destination along the North Sea at the edge of North York Moors National Park.
Teesside also has one of the largest petrochemical complexes in Europe, and oil from the Ekofisk field in the North Sea is piped ashore there.
Coal mining was formerly the biggest industry in the county of Durham, but the last mine closed by the end of the 20th century, and the emphasis is now on engineering, the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, and service industries.
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